SIC 3761
MANUFACTURERS OF GUIDED MISSILES AND SPACE VEHICLES



This category covers establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing guided missiles and space vehicles. This industry also includes establishments owned by guided missile and space vehicle manufacturers and primarily engaged in research and development on these products, whether from enterprise funds or on a contract or fee basis. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing guided missile and space vehicle propulsion units and propulsion unit parts are classified in SIC 3764: Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion Units and Propulsion Unit Parts; those manufacturing space satellites are classified in SIC 3669: Communications Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified; those manufacturing guided missile and space vehicle airborne and ground guidance, checkout, and launch electronic systems and components are classified in SIC 3812: Search, Detection, Navigation, Guidance, Aeronautical, and Nautical Systems and Instruments; and those manufacturing guided missile and space vehicle airframes, nose cones, and space capsules are classified in SIC 3769: Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Parts and Auxiliary Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified. Research and development on guided missiles and space vehicles, on a contract or fee basis, by establishments not owned by guided missile or space vehicle manufacturers are classified in SIC 8731: Commercial Physical and Biological Research.

NAICS Code(s)

336414 (Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Manufacturing)

Industry Snapshot

In 2001, guided missile and space vehicle manufacturers shipped approximately $13.6 billion worth of goods. This represented an increase in shipments from 2000 but down from the highs of the late 1990s. As of 2000, the defense market accounted for some 50 percent of the aerospace and defense industry's sales and was only expected to increase. Defense spending was on the rise for the first time in more than a decade—by some 15 percent in 2003—due to the war on terrorism and the war with Iraq. According to the Defense Department, military spending grew from $261 billion in 1999 to $361 billion in 2003. With the war in Iraq receiving heavy coverage, manufacturers of guided missiles hoped to benefit in terms of sales. Some 90 percent of the munitions used in the war with Iraq were precision-guided, a 10 percent increase from the first Persian Gulf War.

In contrast, the U.S. space program suffered a blow in the early part of the new century with the highly publicized Columbia space shuttle disaster and ensuing concerns about manned spacecrafts and safety. Already plagued by waning financing from the government for big space projects, the space program's hopes that corporate spending would pick up the slack began to fade. To stay competitive, satellite and rocket manufacturers began lowering prices and upping their bids for public assistance. Overall launches in 2001 reached new lows, and new launch contracts continued to dry up.

NASA began to move away from advancing technology toward increased safety and lowered costs. Pushing development plans of small orbital space planes just big enough to accommodate a crew of four astronauts, NASA made an important change by the push for these relatively low-tech vehicles, marking what may be an important trend that could affect the entire industry.

Organization and Structure

This industry classification comprises a large part of the aerospace industry, which is made up of roughly 4,000 companies. The production of missiles accounted for 5 percent of sales in the aerospace industry, and space vehicles (along with related equipment) accounted for 25 percent of sales.

Of the companies in the aerospace industry, only 60 were primary contractors, mostly in the guided missile and space vehicle sectors. These establishments regularly hire subcontractors in other sectors of the aerospace industry. Due to the size and technical scope of aerospace programs, a company that acts as the primary contractor on one project may be a subcontractor on another project.

This industry is subdivided by the type of manufacturing workload an establishment undertakes. Basically, three types of manufacturing establishments exist in this industry: manufacturers of conventional, battlefield, and short- to medium-range guided missiles; producers of strategic ballistic, antiballistic, and long-range missiles; and manufacturers of space vehicles.

Establishments rely on state-of-the-art systems management in which a subcontractor, often the major computer hardware supplier, supervises hundreds of companies at one time. The development of systems management in the United States has been credited to this industry.

Background and Development

The history of this industry is characterized by the world political climate and technological developments. In the United States, wars and foreign policy directly affected the production of guided missiles, whereas the space race with the Soviet Union prompted U.S. production of space vehicles. Two major technological developments also have advanced the growth of this industry: the gas turbine engine, developed in the late 1940s for supersonic speed, and the ballistic missile, first developed in the late 1950s for long-range capabilities in war and space exploration.

The aerospace industry emerged from the aftermath of World War II, which introduced jet rockets and atomic weaponry. These developments added to the already growing aviation industry, first established in the late 1920s, with the success of Charles Lindbergh's flight across the Atlantic. Many companies that were in the aviation business later made the transition into aerospace technology by manufacturing missiles for the U.S. military during World War II.

Space vehicles developed into an industry during the mid-1950s, when the United States became engaged in the "space race" against the Soviet Union. Initially, space vehicles explored the earth's upper atmosphere and the moon. The first manned trip to the moon sparked new interest in space technology with that interest peaking in the late 1960s.

The 1960s also marked tremendous growth in the development of guided missiles. Missiles manufactured in the United States were sold to parties in conflict in the Middle East and to other troubled areas of the world. The production of both missiles and space vehicles decreased during the mid- to late 1970s because of the end of the Vietnam War and the economic recession.

During the 1980s the guided missile portion of this industry hit its all-time peak as a result of renewed defense spending by the Reagan administration. During this arms race, missile sales escalated from slightly more than $10 billion in 1983 to nearly $14 billion in 1988, according to the Electronic Industries Association. President Reagan also proposed the development of antiballistic strategic defenses, commonly known as the Star Wars initiative, to counter possible Soviet missile attacks.

However, by the end of the 1980s, yet another dramatic shift occurred in this industry. With the fall of the Iron Curtain bringing about the dismantling of the Soviet Union's satellite empire in eastern Europe, and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union itself, U.S. defense spending was greatly reduced. From 1987 to 1994, U.S. Defense Department outlays for aircraft dropped from more than $30 billion to slightly more than $19 billion. Similarly, the government budget for research and development in defense and space technology dropped significantly. This also was due to the explosion of the Challenger space shuttle, in which seven astronauts perished.

Missiles. Among the types of guided missiles are antitank and assault, antiship, air-to-surface, air-to-air, and surface-to-air. Antitank and assault missiles were developed in the United States after World War II (although some accounts have Germany developing these missiles near the end of the war). These missiles were first installed on light trucks and helicopters and were equipped with warheads to penetrate armor. In early models, tracking was visual, with commands controlled by a hand-operated system transmitted by wire. Later, anti-tank missiles transmitted commands by radio, laser and infrared homing techniques. By the 1980s, optical fibers had become the standard guidance device for these missiles.

Anti-ship missiles were designed to fight against the heavy armor of warships. These types of guided missiles received little attention by U.S. manufacturers after World War II until the Soviet Union began developing them. The United States countered with turbojet-powered missiles such as the Harpoon, which weighed about 1,200 pounds and carried a warhead weighing 420 pounds. Later, the U.S. Navy Tomahawk introduced a new type of anti-ship missile—a long-range cruise missile intended for strategic nuclear defense. Its anti-ship version carried a modified Harpoon guidance system. By the 1980s, antiship missiles were developed for stealth aircraft with visual, infrared, and radar tracking.

Air-to-surface missiles became standard in U.S. combat by the late 1950s with the AGM-12 Bullpup, a rocket-powered tracking missile with visual tracking and radio transmitted commands. After several variations of the AGM-type missiles were employed during the Vietnam War, the Bullpup was replaced by the AGM-64/65 Maverick group of rocket-powered missiles, which first used television tracking and later used infrared devices.

Air-to-air missiles were first developed in the United States in the late 1940s with the subsonic Firebird, a radar-guided missile. However, this particular missile became obsolete within a few years, being replaced by supersonic missiles, such as the Falcon, the Sidewinder, and the Sparrow. The Sidewinder became the most used of these missile types; later versions of this missile had highly sensitive emission seekers. Tactical demands brought about improvements in air-to-air technology, which resulted in long-range air-interception missiles and missiles with higher maneuverability.

Surface-to-air missiles were first introduced by the Germans during World War II, but they were not widely used until the 1950s and 1960s. The most important American-produced surface-to-air missile was the Hawk; this missile was extremely effective in targeting lowflying aircraft. In the mid-1980s the Hawk was replaced by the Patriot, which gained popularity as a result of the Persian Gulf War.

Missiles are classified as either conventional or strategic. Strategic missiles refer to long-range missiles, especially those with nuclear warheads, and include ballistic and cruise missiles. Ballistic missiles are rocket-propelled systems that are launched either from land or sea and move by the launch rocket momentum. Cruise missiles are powered continuously by air-breathing jet engines. These types of missiles are aided by guidance systems and early warning devices on satellites.

Space Vehicles. There are three basic types of space vehicles: space capsules with rocket boosters, reentry vehicles, and satellites. Satellites are classified under SIC 3669: Communications Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified. Space vehicles are made of two basic components—the launch vehicle and the spacecraft, also referred to as the payload. The spacecraft is unpowered; it relies on the initial velocity provided by the launch vehicle so that it can either enter an orbit around the earth or continue to a further destination.

Space capsules with rocket boosters were first designed and tested in the United States in the mid-1950s with the intent of sending a man into outer space. These capsules are environmentally controlled containers for living organisms. The rockets attached to the space capsule are used for launching the capsule and later separate from it.

Reentry vehicles, such as space shuttles, were first launched by the United States in 1981. These space vehicles were designed to go into the Earth's orbit, drop off a payload such as a satellite, and return to earth by making a gliding landing. Shuttles are made of three basic components: a winged orbiter that houses crew and cargo, an external tank containing fuel and liquid oxygen, and booster rockets, which separate from the space craft and return to earth. By 1990 the United States had used four shuttles, many on repeated missions but also with much difficulty. Technical and design problems frequently delayed launches and also were responsible for the explosion of the Challenger space shuttle in 1986.

Satellites, classified under SIC 3669: Communications Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified, are spacecraft that revolve around planets and are used for communications, weather forecasting, scientific research, and military reconnaissance. The first satellite was launched in 1957 by the Soviet Union. By the end of the 1980s there were hundreds of satellites orbiting the Earth and nearby planets. In the early 1990s an estimated $3 billion annually went into the manufacturing of communications satellites in the United States alone. The estimated figure for 1995 was almost $8 billion.

This industry was further affected by the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in July 1991. According to the treaty, guided missiles with nuclear warheads would no longer be produced, and 30 percent of existing ones would be destroyed.

By the end of the century, both national and international manufacturers were partnering in order to stay competitive in the industry. The merger between Boeing and McDonnell Douglas brought about the launching of the new American-built rockets, Delta 2 and Delta 3. The company's new Delta 4 rockets, able to carry heavier payloads, won 19 launches worth $1.37 billion for missions scheduled between fiscal years 2002 and 2006. Boeing is hopeful that the EELV program will help to elevate the company into a leading launch provider. Boeing also partnered with Ukranine's Yuzhnoye, Russia's Khrunichev, and Norway's Kvaerner for the Sea Launch project, of which the first launch took place from a mobile platform in the Pacific Ocean, near the equator, in October 1999. Hughes Space and Communications purchased 13 of the 18 launch slots in the belief that the satellites will have a longer life span by being launched at the low latitude near the equator. By 1999 more than 30 major systems in the construction of the International Space Station (ISS), and more than 50 percent of the major tests, were completed on the module. The station, a joint ISS venture between the United States and Russia, was scheduled to be completed by 2005 and 2006.

Reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) were being developed in the late 1990s. Florida and Texas were the frontrunners vying for the futuristic "spaceports" in a market expected to be worth more than $120 billion by 2010. Fred Welch, executive director of Brazoria County Partnership, developed a plan to build a spaceport in Freeport, Texas. There also were plans underway by partners Andy Pole and William Dettmer for a similar spaceport to be erected in New Mexico. Because of the high demand for Internet and cellular telephone service worldwide, hundreds of satellites were needed in orbit as quickly and as inexpensively as possible. Spaceports were seen as the answer. Lockheed Martin's VentureStar would be able to transport cargo into space at one tenth of the current expense and would be able to fly every two or three days. NASA showed interest in the VentureStar as a means to replace the Space Shuttle and become the courier to the International Space Station. Testing began in 2000 with projected operation to begin in 2005. NASA put up a significant part of the initial funding for the VentureStar prototype.

Lockheed Martin launched heavy payloads from Cape Canaveral, Florida, Vandenburg Air Force Base in California, and Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Russia. These international partnerships had 49 confirmed launches set as of May 1998 and a backlog of international sales.

Orbital Sciences Corp. had eight scheduled launches for 1998, including an experimental launch in February of the Teledesic LEO communications system. LMC had 6 launches scheduled for its small launch vehicles called Athenas in 1998 and three more in 1999.

New construction began during 1999 at Cape Canaveral and at the NASA Kennedy Space Center for a major new launch facility. Plans included a facility to support the RLV development and flight-testing, as well as several $100 million worth of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles sponsored by both Boeing and Lockheed Martin. Launch pad construction at Complex 37 was underway but construction at Complex 41 was delayed because of a Titan 4 failure in August 1999.

More than 1,700 new satellites were being constructed in 1999 for launchings scheduled in the first decade of 2000. New manufacturers also came on the scene in the 1990s due to the high growth in the space launch industry. However, this growth rate is expected to level off after about 2003. Despite the leveling off, service providers should continue to grow due to the maintenance factor of both the LEO satellite communications system and the replacement of the GEO telecommunications system.

Current Conditions

The guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing industry shipped approximately $13.6 billion worth of products in 2001. That number was up from $12.8 the previous year but significantly less than industry numbers of the late 1990s. One reason included the events of September 11 taking its toll on the already battered economy of 2001.

According to the Defense Department, military spending has grown from $261 billion in 1999 to $361 billion in 2003. Spending in this area began to increase due to the war on terrorism shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks and the war with Iraq in early 2003. Makers of weapons were expecting to benefit from the around-the-clock coverage of the Iraqi War and the power and precision of the weapons shown. A surge in arms sales followed the 1991 Persian Gulf War and makers had little reason to doubt a similar outcome here. Upwards of 90 percent of the munitions used in the war with Iraq were precision-guided, a 10 percent increase from the Persian Gulf War. More than 500 Tomahawk precision-guided missiles, made by Raytheon Co., were fired in the first 24 hours of war. The war also made the first widespread use of the Paveway II, made by Raytheon and Lockheed Martin Corp. An update of a 1970s bomb, the Paveway features a sensor that guides it to laser-illuminated targets selected by the pilot. Another Raytheon precision-guided bomb, the AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon, used during the war on terror in Afghanistan, was also widely used for the first time in Iraq. Another weapon that received attention in the Iraq war was Boeing Joint Direct Attack Munition bomb or JDAM. One of the least expensive weapons of its kind, a free-fall bomb can be converted into a JDAM by affixing a GPS receiver to it, enabling it to direct its fins and hit a precise target. Worldwide, missile output was forecast to number 26,979 in 2003, declining to 21,941 in 2005 before a slight increase in 2006 to some 23,408.

Meanwhile, the trend toward consolidation in defense that was prevalent in the 1990s continued in the early 2000s. Defense companies spent $30 billion on mergers and acquisitions in 2001 alone.

The space segment of the sector was not faring as well, however. U.S. government funding for large space projects has waned in recent years, with little help from corporate America. The negative publicity surrounding the Columbia space shuttle disaster of early 2003 did little to aid this already troubled sector. Although still the leader in all areas of space, the two largest contractors, Boeing Co. and Lockheed Martin Corp., announced the requirement of $1 billion in federal subsidies over the next few years to maintain their launch programs. Worldwide, there were 60 launches in 2001, a decrease of 29.4 percent from 2000 and one of the most dramatic declines over a one-year period in launches in the past decade. New launch contracts also suffered, with a mere dozen announced during the second half of 2001. It was estimated that 2002 would see approximately 65 launches in total.

Worldwide, satellite launches were forecast to number 118 in 2003, eventually reaching 149 in 2006. Most of the major launch vehicle programs, including Atlas, Cosmos, Delta, Space Shuttle, and Long March, were launching at a rate of one every three to four months. The most successful, Arianespace's Arine, of Europe, and Russia's Proton, were averaging one launch every two months. About half of all launch vehicle programs, including Molniya, Pegasus, XL, H-2A, Sea Launch, Zenit, and Titan, are only launching once or twice per year.

The once highly-touted development of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) of the late 1990s had all but completely disappeared in the early 2000s. Once estimated that development and flight testing of commercial RLVs would be feasible in the mid- to late-2000s, those estimates are now highly unlikely. The utter lack of investment capital available to complete a commercial RLV was due to its high-risk and lack of customers needed to support a profitable RLV business. With launch costs estimated at $5,000 to $15,000 per pound, the market is slim with launches feasible only once every few years, further driving away prospective RLV investors.

In an effort to reduce launch costs, Lockheed Martin and Boeing newly introduced Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs) showed signs of early success. The new vehicles were intended to compete with Arianespace, the European launch provider that held half of the world launch market in 2001. Overall, analysts were positive about the vehicles' long term success as long as government support continued.

NASA began acceleration of its efforts to build a new space vehicle after the Columbia accident. A digression from its lofty goals at the beginning of the Space Age, NASA is awarding $135 million to three major aerospace companies to design small orbital space planes—just big enough to accommodate a crew of four astronauts—that favors cost reductions and improved safety over pushing the technological envelope. With no engines of its own, the pilotless plane would ride on top of an expendable rocket such as an Atlas 5 or Delta 4 and carry very small payloads. Pulling away from everadvancing technology with these relatively low-tech vehicles marks an important change that may realign the entire industry.

NASA did receive some good news in early 2003, when the government announced it would seek approximately $15.5 billion for NASA for 2004, up about $500 million from 2003.

Industry Leaders

The Boeing Co. acquired the defense and space units of Rockwell International in 1996 and merged with McDonnell Douglas in 1997, making Boeing the world's largest manufacturer of commercial jetliners, military aircraft, and NASA's leading contractor. The company employed more 166,000 people in 2002 in more than 60 countries worldwide. Company revenues reached more than $54 billion in 2002. Moving into the new millennium, Boeing continued to increase its technologies in fields of space flight and exploration, as well as commercial space applications. The International Space Station, a joint venture with 16 nations, is being led by a team of Boeing engineers.

The satellite network known as Internet-in-the-sky was developed through the teamwork of Boeing and Teledesic Corp. Boeing also is contracted to build 33 next-generation global positioning satellites. Along with international partnering for the Sea Launch joint venture, the company also makes expendable launch vehicles.

Lockheed Martin employed 125,000 people and posted 2002 sales of more than $26.5 billion, a 10.8 percent increase from 2001. Lockheed Corp. began as the Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Co. in 1916 (but the company soon changed its name to Lockheed to reflect the correct pronunciation). This company started with the development of its twin-engine, F-1 flying boats. By 1927, Lockheed became widely known for its planes, including the Lockheed Vega, flown by Amelia Earhart.

Lockheed entered the defense industry in 1938, when commissioned to build reconnaissance bombers for the British. Lockheed went on to produce a wide range of military planes and early cruise missiles during World War II, including the Harpoon. By the end of the war, the company had produced more than 9 percent of the United States' military aircraft.

After the war, Lockheed established its missile and space division, starting with submarine launched missiles. During the Cold War, Lockheed developed guided missiles for the Pentagon, including its U-2 spy plane, which had notable success during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. In addition to military contracts, Lockheed stayed in the commercial aircraft business, manufacturing jetliners; however, this division nearly placed the company into bankruptcy by the early 1970s. The company finally gained some success in jetliners in the foreign market—at the expense of being involved in an international scandal. Lockheed was implicated in accepting bribes from several countries, including Iran and Japan.

During the 1980s, Lockheed led the industry in government defense contracts, primarily in building F-19 stealth bombers and Trident II missiles, as well as in servicing NASA's space shuttles. During the early 1990s, the company remained successful in defense technology, with its stealth fighters being used in the Persian Gulf War. After an unsuccessful expansion of its commercial divisions, Lockheed reversed course to attempt to become the nation's largest defense contractor. In the mid-1990s, the company employed 81,300 workers and predicted a 10 percent annual increase in its earnings.

In March 1995, Lockheed merged with Martin Marietta Corp. which, like other industry leaders, had its origins in airplane production in the early days of aviation. Martin Marietta remained closely aligned with U.S. military projects from bomber production in World War II, rockets and missiles in the 1960s, to space vehicles from the 1970s to the present. In April 1996, Lockheed Martin bought Loral Corp., emerging as the largest defense contractor in the United States.

Raytheon Co. is divided into four segments: electronics, aircraft, engineering and construction, and appliances. Its electronics segment ranked Raytheon number six nationwide. Listed among its products are Patriot missiles. Raytheon employed 76,400 people in 2002, a decrease of 12.4 percent from 2001. The company reported sales of $16.7 billion in 2002.

Other key companies in the manufacture of guided missile systems and space vehicles included Loral Space & Communications Ltd. and ITT Defense and Electronics. Loral Space & Communications Ltd. has as its primary operations the manufacture of satellites and satellite-based telecommunications systems. The company was formed by the remains of Loral Corp., the bulk of which was acquired by Lockheed Martin. ITT Defense and Electronics (ITTD&E), a unit of ITT Industries Inc., has been selected by NASA as its sole supplier of meteorological instruments for the newest members of the NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. The company has been a leading supplier of high technology commercial and defense electronic systems and services.

Workforce

By 2001, this industry employed 36,649 people, down from a high of 53,085 in 1998. Of this total, 12,487 were production workers who earned an average hourly wage of $29.14. Nearly 60 percent of the workforce lived in California.

For both production and research and development, the main occupations needed for this industry are engineers, scientists, and technicians. Engineers usually have specialized as either aeronautical engineers working with aircraft, or as astronautical engineers working with space vehicles. Technicians working in this industry include laboratory technicians, electrical technicians, and draftsmen. Other occupations required by this industry include technical writers, machinists, assembly workers, system managers, worker supervisors, computer programmers, and various clerical workers.

America and the World

The production of strategic missiles, given their nuclear capabilities, was originally restricted to the United States and the Soviet Union. However, since the end of the Cold War, there has been worldwide concern that the superpowers would sell their stockpile of weapons—and possibly new weapons—to third world countries. Other countries that developed missile technology became somewhat successful in ballistic missiles, but less so with cruise missiles. Ballistic missiles do not require the sophisticated guidance system of cruise missiles and adapt to chemical weaponry more easily.

The end of the Cold War, coupled with worldwide economic recession, gave rise to change in the international market for space programs in the 1990s. An industry first monopolized by the United States and the former Soviet Union entered into competition with the European Space Agency, the People's Republic of China, and Japan. The new political and economic climate allowed for more cooperative efforts in space. NASA considered Russian contributions to the U.S. Freedom space station and other ventures.

The United States also imported guided missiles and space vehicles, but only on a small scale and mostly for research and development. In the mid-1990s, U.S. imports in this industry totaled approximately $1.6 million.

Arianespace, the European consortium, was the global leader in the guided missile and space vehicle industry by 2001. Like in the United States, the European missile programs have been plagued with budget problems through the early 2000s. Germany partnered with Canada, Greece, Italy, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands to develop the IRIS-T short-range air-to-air missile. The United Kingdom was developing larger, more powerful missiles at that time. Israel was exporting smaller missiles to Chile, China, Thailand, and South Africa. However, the United States continued to produce the best beyond-visual-range missiles throughout the world.

Japan scheduled the first launch of its commercial vehicle, the H-2A, for 2001. A new agreement with the Japanese fisherman led the way for Japan to update and enlarge the infrastructure at Tanegashima. This agreement also allows Japan to use the launch site for a longer duration of the year.

Research and Technology

Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, partnered with industry leaders to develop new graphite epoxy technology. This new material would create lightweight cryogenic fuel lines for such vehicles as NASA's X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator. This new system would not only create a fuel line that is lighter and stronger than metal, but the materials do not expand or contract as much as metal in extreme temperatures.

Research in the early 2000s by NASA, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, included the development of hypersonic propulsion systems for manned spacecrafts. NASA also funded the testing of a decades old concept of powering a spacecraft using nuclear explosions with the Mini-Mag Orion propulsion concept. Led by Andrews Space & Technology (AS&T), the bombs were replaced with small pellets of fissile material that would be compressed beyond their supercritical point using a magnetic field. Another magnetic field would serve as the nozzle, directing the resulting plasma away from the vehicle and thus generate thrust. AS&T intended to seek more funding to develop a 250,000-500,000 pound-thrust engine using the concept and was hopeful it could do it in under 10 years.

Further Reading

The Associated Press. "Spaceport Competitors See New Era of Industry in Stars." USA Today, 27 April 1999.

"Fortune." Industry Snapshot, 1999. Available from http://www.fortune.com .

"Hoover's Company Capsules." Austin, TX: Hoovers's, Inc., 2003. Available from http://www.hoovers.com .

"Launch Services: Too Many Rockets, Too Few Payloads." Aviation Week and Space Technology, 24 February 2003. Available from http://www.aviationnow.com .

Menn, Joseph. "War With Iraq; Military Buildup Gives Many Tech Companies A New Lease on Life." The Los Angeles Times, 27 March 2003.

Merle, Renae. "Companies: U.S. Defense Industry Shoes Off Its Wares—War Gives Broad Exposure to New Weapons Systems and May Spur Arms Sales." Wall Street Journal, 2 April 2003.

Michaels, Daniel; Charles Hutzler; and Andy Pasztor. "The Columbia is Lost—A Global Journal Report." Wall Street Journal, 3 February 2003.

Morris, Jefferson. "Analysts Say Tough Times Ahead, But Prognosis Good For EELVs." Aerospace Daily, 25 November 2002. Available from http://www.aviationnow.com .

"New Materials May Make Vehicles Lighter, Cheaper." Design News, 15 February 1999.

"Reusable Launch Vehicles: And Then There Were …" Aviation Week and Space Technology, 24 February 2003. Available from http://www.aviationnow.com .

Simonetta, Joe. "Aerospace & Defense." Hoover's Online, 2003. Available from http://www.hoovers.com .

Smith, Bruce A. "Construction Plans." Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1 January 1999.

"The Space Industry Vying for Stardom." The Economist, 17 July 1999.

"Space Propulsion; Nuclear Power Concept Revisited." Flight International, 22 April 2003.

"Space Vehicles." Design News, 15 February 1999.

Squeo, Anne Marie. "NASA's Shaken Contractors—Shuttle Managers Boeing, Lockheed Feel Shock Waves; When Is the Next Launch?" Wall Street Journal, 3 February 2003.

U.S. Census Bureau. 1997 Economic Census—Manufacturing. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1999.

——. Annual Survey of Manufactures. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 20 December 2002.

Vartabedian, Ralph. "The Nation; NASA Goes Full Throttle on New Space Vehicle Plan; Three Firms are Vying to Build the Orbital Planes. Critics Call the No-Frills Fleet a Leap Backward." The Los Angeles Times, 7 April 2003.



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