Bundled Goods and Services

Bundling is a marketing tactic that involves offering two or more goods or services as a package deal for a discounted price. Examples of bundling are as widespread as McDonald's value meals and automobiles with features such as air conditioning, sunroofs, and geographical systems.

Business Continuity Planning

Organizations are faced with a variety of threats and vulnerabilities, and these continue to evolve. Business disruptions can include natural disasters such as floods, fires, hurricanes, and power outages.

Business Plan

A business plan is a written document used to describe a proposed venture or idea. It typically includes the current state of a business, future vision for the business, target market analysis and challenges, sales and marketing strategies, and funding requirements to reach stated goals.

Business Process Reengineering

Process reengineering is redesigning or reinventing how we perform our daily work, and it is a concept that is applicable to all industries regardless of size, type, and location.

Business Structure

When forming a new company, one of the first critical decisions is the formal structure that business will take. Issues such as liability, ownership, operating strategy, and taxation are all impacted by the formal structure of the business.

Cafeteria Plan—Flexible Benefits

A cafeteria plan, also called a flexible benefit plan, allows employees to choose from a menu of optional benefits the ones that best fit their individual needs. Thus, employees can customize their benefit packages.

Capacity Planning

Capacity planning has seen an increased emphasis due to the financial benefits of the efficient use of capacity plans within material requirements planning systems and other information systems. Insufficient capacity can quickly lead to deteriorating delivery performance, unnecessarily increase work-in-process, and frustrate sales personnel and those in manufacturing.

Case Method of Analysis

The case method of analysis involves studying actual business situations—written as an in-depth presentation of a company, its market, and its strategic decisions—in order to improve a manager's or a student's problem-solving ability. Cases typically investigate a contemporary issue in a real-life context.

Cash Flow Analysis and Statement

Cash flow analysis is a method of analyzing the financing, investing, and operating activities of a company. The primary goal of cash flow analysis is to identify, in a timely manner, cash flow problems as well as cash flow opportunities.

Cellular Manufacturing

Cellular manufacturing is a manufacturing process that produces families of parts within a single line or cell of machines operated by machinists who work only within the line or cell. A cell is a small scale, clearly-defined production unit within a larger factory.

Chain of Command Principle

The chain of command, sometimes called the scaler chain, is the formal line of authority, communication, and responsibility within an organization. The chain of command is usually depicted on an organizational chart, which identifies the superior and subordinate relationships in the organizational structure.

Chaos Theory

Chaos theory is a scientific principle describing the unpredictability of systems. Most fully explored and recognized during the mid-to-late 1980s, its premise is that systems sometimes reside in chaos, generating energy but without any predictability or direction.

Coalition Building

Coalitions refer to the temporary formation of persons, groups, or even nations for some type of joint or common action. It has been used as a term most often in relation to political or national issues, such as President George H.


Communication is the sharing or exchange of thought by oral, written, or nonverbal means. To function effectively, managers need to know and be able to apply strategically a variety of communication skills that match varying managerial tasks.

Competitive Advantage

Many firms strive for a competitive advantage, but few truly understand what it is or how to achieve and keep it. A competitive advantage can be gained by offering the consumer a greater value than the competitors, such as by offering lower prices or providing quality services or other benefits that justify a higher price.

Competitive Intelligence

Intelligence is information that has been analyzed for decision making. It is important to understand the difference between information and intelligence.

Complexity Theory

The basic premise of complexity theory is that there is a hidden order to the behavior (and evolution) of complex systems, whether that system is a national economy, an ecosystem, an organization, or a production line. In business and finance, complexity theory places its focus on the ways a factory or company resemble an ecosystem or market, rather than a machine "whose parts and functions have been plucked out in advance," according to David Berreby.

Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing

Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), involves the entire spectrum of drawing with the aid of a computer—from straight lines to custom animation. In practice, CAD refers to software for the design of engineering and architectural solutions, complete with two- and three-dimensional modeling capabilities.

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the use of computer techniques to integrate manufacturing activities. These activities encompass all functions necessary to translate customer needs into a final product.