Strategy in the Global Environment

Globalization was the buzzword of the 1990s, and in the twenty first century, there is no evidence that globalization will diminish. Essentially, globalization refers to growth of trade and investment, accompanied by the growth in international businesses, and the integration of economies around the world.


As the pace at which our society operates increases, the pressures for every member of society to keep up with this pace also increase. Many of these pressures affect people through their jobs.

Succession Planning

Succession planning is a critical part of the human resources planning process. Human resources planning (HRP) is the process of having the right number of employees in the right positions in the organization at the time that they are needed.

Supply Chain Management

Supply chain management (SCM) is a broadened management focus that considers the combined impact of all the companies involved in the production of goods and services, from suppliers to manufacturers to wholesalers to retailers to final consumers and beyond to disposal and recycling. This approach to managing production and logistics networks assumes all companies involved in the process of delivering goods to consumers are part of a network, pipeline, or supply chain.


Sweatshops are work environments that possess three major characteristics—long hours, low pay, and unsafe or unhealthy working conditions. Sweatshops have been a factor in the production of goods around the world for centuries, but the globalization of business has led increasing numbers of major corporations to take advantage of low-cost sweatshop labor in developing countries.


Synergy, also known as synergism, refers to the combined effects produced by two or more parts, elements, or individuals. Simply stated, synergy results when the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

Systems Analysis

Systems analysis is the process of examining a business situation for the purpose of developing a system solution to a problem or devising improvements to such a situation. Before the development of any system can begin, a project proposal is prepared by the users of the potential system and/or by systems analysts and submitted to an appropriate managerial structure within the organization.

Systems Design

A system can be defined in several ways, including: (1) a set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose; (2) a piece of software that operates to manage a related collection of tasks; or (3) a design for an organization that perceives sets of processes as a related collection of tasks.

Task Analysis

The definition of task analysis varies depending on the purpose for it and the context in which it is performed. Similarly, purposes for conducting task analyses vary, from using the process as an aid in designing job descriptions to using it to develop effective tools for human-computer interaction (e.g., analyzing user needs and behaviors to develop software).

Teams and Teamwork

A team is a collection of individuals organized to accomplish a common purpose, who are interdependent, and who can be identified by themselves and observers as a team. Teams exist within a larger organization and interact with other teams and with the organization.

Technological Forecasting

Forecasting is defined by B.R.

Technology Management

Technology is a Greek word derived from the synthesis of two words: techne (meaning art) and logos (meaning logic or science). So loosely interpreted, technology means the art of logic or the art of scientific discipline.

Technology Transfer

Technology transfer is a fast-growing activity in the U.S. research and development system, and one which has received substantial attention from governments, industry, and universities.


Traditionally, telecommunications denoted the long-distance connections that linked television networks to their affiliates and the long-distance phone connections that linked telephone networks to local switching centers. Hence the term applied both to AT&T's long-distance telephone network and to the television industry's worldwide networks-but each used very different technologies to transmit voice or video.

Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y represent two sets of assumptions about human nature and human behavior that are relevant to the practice of management. Theory X represents a negative view of human nature that assumes individuals generally dislike work, are irresponsible, and require close supervision to do their jobs.

Theory Z

Theory Z is an approach to management based upon a combination of American and Japanese management philosophies and characterized by, among other things, long-term job security, consensual decision making, slow evaluation and promotion procedures, and individual responsibility within a group context. Proponents of Theory Z suggest that it leads to improvements in organizational performance.

Theory of Constraints

In early 1979 Goldratt introduced a software-based manufacturing scheduling program known as Optimized Production Timetables (OPT), changed in 1982 to Optimized Production Technology. With the publication of The Goal, Goldratt used his Socratic teaching style to educate the world about managing bottlenecks (constraints) and his new ideas about performance.

Time-Based Competition

The widespread use of just-in-time production (JIT) and other advanced manufacturing techniques has been credited with providing such improvements as decreased inventories, set-up times, downtime and workspace. These decreases have yielded increases in inventory turns, equipment utilization, labor utilization, and ultimately, profit.

Time Management

Many business people struggle with time management and would like to accomplish more tasks in a day, or have more time for non-work activities. There are a number of tips and suggestions for improving time management in a person's workplace and home, and different approaches work for different people.