SIC 3965

This industry includes companies that make notions, such as slide and snap fasteners and zippers, machine and hand needles, pins, hooks and eyes, buckles, buttons, button parts, and button blanks. Companies that make these items from precious metals or from precious or semiprecious stones are classified in SIC 3911: Jewelry, Precious Metals.

NAICS Code(s)

339993 (Fastener, Button, Needle, and Pin Manufacturing)

Needles, pins, and fasteners—made from metals and both natural and manmade fibers—comprise the largest share of this industry's output. Zippers, slide fasteners, buttons, and button parts—made from both plastics and metals—were less dominant but notable types of industry products. Nearly 90 percent of industry output re-entered as components for other manufacturing industries. Of these, apparel, shoes, knitting mills, and household furniture makers were most prominent. Items sold directly to consumers made up the remainder.

In 1990 this industry had 237 companies. This number rose to 573 in 1997, but fell back to 216 in 2001. Most of the companies in this category were small: 88 establishments employed fewer than 5 people, while 47 had between 5 and 9 employees. The remainder of the companies were otherwise distributed, with 17 reporting between 10 and 19 employees, 39 reporting between 20 and 99 employees, and 25 reporting 100 or more.

In 2001, the total value of goods shipped was $704.3 million. During the 1990s, manufacturers of fasteners, buttons, needles, and pins were primarily located in the eastern United States. New York and Connecticut led the nation in the number of establishments per state, with 82 and 25 establishments, respectively.

The industry leader in 2001 was Avibank Manufacturing Inc. of North Hollywood, California, with revenues of $144 million and 700 employees. Second was QSN Manufacturing Inc. of Bensenville, Illinois, with $81 million in revenue and 200 employees. Rounding out the top three was Spartanburg, South Carolina-based

SIC 3965 Fasteners, Buttons, Needles, and Pins

Prym Dritz Corp., with $50 million in revenue and 100 employees.

Further Reading

"Avibank Manufacturing Inc. About Us." 7 March 2004. Available from .

Baker, Deborah J., ed. Ward's Business Directory of US Private and Public Companies. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2003.

U.S. Census Bureau. Statistics of U.S. Businesses: 2001. 1 March 2004. Available from .

U.S. Department of Commerce. Annual Survey of Manufactures. Washington: GPO, 2002.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Economic and Employment Projections. 11 February 2004. Available from .

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