This category includes establishments primarily engaged in operating ferries for the transportation of passengers or vehicles. Establishments primarily engaged in providing lighterage services are classified in SIC 4499: Water Transportation Services, Not Elsewhere Classified.
483114 (Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger Transportation)
483212 (Inland Water Passenger Transportation)
In 2000, there were 224 ferry operators in the United States. Operators provided ferry service on 487 nonstop ferry route segments, comprising 352 ferry routes and serving 578 ferry terminal locations. The 677 ferries in operation carried 113 million passengers and more than 32 million vehicles. Some 10 percent of ferries were high speed vessels, capable of going 25 knots or faster. After falling to historic lows in the 1970s, U.S. ferry services began enjoying a revival in popularity as commuters sought alternatives to overcrowded highways.
Ferries in the United States run the gamut from small floating parking lots capable of carrying a few dozen cars a short distance to huge ferryliners, such as those servicing the Alaska Marine Highway, that are capable of carrying hundreds of automobiles. Some even provide passengers with conveniences ranging from lounges and cafeterias to overnight accommodations on trips that could last up to a week. Some old-fashioned rope or steam-operated paddle-wheel ferries still run as tourist attractions and as a living monument to the long history of ferries in the United States.
Multi-route ferry systems, such as the Alaskan system or the Washington State Ferry System, are often operated by state departments of transportation. However, many commuter routes in urban areas such as New York and San Francisco are privately operated. Highway river crossings are characterized by a mix of government and privately run services. Federal law requires that all passenger ferries be inspected by the U.S. Coast Guard. There was no national organization of ferry operators, although many of them belonged to the American Waterways Operators.
Ferries are commonly defined as boats that carry passengers or vehicles across narrow bodies of water in return for payment. They have a long history. Even Charon, ferryman for the dead in ancient Greek mythology, demanded payment before transporting souls across the river Styx into Hades, prompting Greeks to place coins in the mouths of the dead before burying them.
The earliest accounts of European exploration in North America record instances of Native Americans charging to carry passengers across rivers in birch bark canoes. There are, in fact, written accounts of wagons being loaded into two canoes paddled side-by-side. Many early government treaties conferred the right of ferriage to the Indians, but the Indians were shunted aside as soon as a ferry route became profitable, as John Perry points out in American Ferryboats.
As late as 1828, 10 years after Illinois became a state, the Winnebago Indians controlled the important commercial ferry route across the Rock River at modern day Dixon. When the Winnebago monopoly was challenged in 1827, the Indians destroyed both the offending ferry-boat and ferry house. Eventually, ferriage rights were negotiated as part of the Treaty of Green Bay. French trapper Joe Ogee established the first non-Indian ferry in 1829. In 1832, Ogee sold the ferry to John Dixon, and the community became known as Dixon's Ferry.
Piecing together a history of the early American ferryboat industry is difficult because few official records were kept. What is known was usually gleaned from the diaries of travelers, or as was often the case, when squabbles over who had the legal right to provide ferriage ended up in court. However, by the 1640s, there were several established ferry routes in the American colonies. In 1630, the Massachusetts Bay Colony issued a request for someone to begin ferry service between Boston and Charlestown. The first regular ferry service between New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island and Brooklyn on Long Island is known to have been in operation by 1643, and probably for several years before that.
In 1654, New Amsterdam also passed what may have been the first ferry ordinance in the New World. The ordinance declared that no one could provide ferriage without a license, that ferry service must adhere to a regular schedule, and that ferry operators must provide shelters for passengers on both shores. Despite the ordinance, however, ferry service between Manhattan and Brooklyn was a contentious free-for-all for more than 100 years as the two communities argued over which had the right to carry passengers across the East River. The dispute often turned ugly, as when Brooklyn radicals burned the ferry house belonging to the officially chartered and licensed New York Corporation. Brooklyn finally won the legal right to provide its own ferry service in 1775. Although the colony of New York appealed to the Court of King George III, the appeal was never heard because the American colonies declared their independence in 1776.
Current-Driven Ferries. Initially, Indian canoes were replaced on ferry routes by flat-bottomed boats that were either rowed, poled, or paddled across the stream or river. On open water, ferryboats were often fitted with sails. The first technological improvement was simply to string a rope across the river. The rope allowed the ferry to be pulled across. But more importantly, it acted as a restraint so that the ferry would end up at the right point on the opposite shore instead of being pushed downstream by the current. This made it feasible to build permanent docks, rather than allowing the ferries to run aground along the riverbank somewhere close to their destination. In some places, horses or windlasses were used to pull the ferries.
The use of ropes led to the development of "current ferries." Ferry operators discovered they could use water power to drive the boats by turning them at a slight angle to the river current, much like tacking in a sailboat, except the rope also kept the ferry from moving downstream. The return trip could be made by reversing the angle of the ferry. The current ferry established the pattern of double-ended ferryboats, which removed the need to turn the boat around. Eventually, wire cables replaced ropes, but current ferries remained the most common short-haul ferries in the United States into the nineteenth century. Another innovation was the pendulum ferry. Fairly popular in Europe, although rare in the United States, pendulum ferries took advantage of a mid-river island to anchor a rope or cable strung along a line of floating platforms. Such ferries would then swing across the river at the end of the rope pendulums.
Team Boats. Current ferries were fine for narrow rivers that could be spanned by ropes or cables, but broad rivers or coastal bays required a different source of power. The "team boat," which appeared in America in the early nineteenth century, used mules or horses carried aboard the ferry to power a capstan or treadmill that drove a paddle wheel. The Romans apparently used oxen in a similar manner to propel war boats, but team boats were considered an ingenious new invention by early Americans. The first team boat in the United States is believed to have been put in service in 1814 on a run between Brooklyn and Manhattan. The Long Island Star reported that the boat took 8 to 18 minutes to cross the East River and carried an average of 200 passengers, plus horses and vehicles. The team boat was the principal type of ferry for open water for almost two decades, until the steamboat replaced it. However, many team boats operated well into the twentieth century.
Steam Ferries. Steamboats, including ferries, were operating in the United States as early as 1786. However, credit for creating the first practical, commercial steamboat is usually given to Robert Fulton in 1807. Fulton was a successful jeweler and painter of miniatures before he turned his attention to science and engineering in the late eighteenth century. He invented a number of labor saving machines and designed several experimental submarines between 1797 and 1806. The following year, Fulton directed the construction of a steamboat originally known as the North River Steamboat and later renamed it the Clermont. For many years, the Clermont carried passengers and cargo up and down the Hudson River, but it was never used as a ferry.
In 1808, Fulton formed New York and Brooklyn Ferry Associates and established a watershed business relationship with Robert R. Livingston, former United States Ambassador to France who had signed the Declaration of Independence and negotiated the Louisiana Purchase. Several years before, around 1790, the governments of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York each granted exclusive license to American inventor John Fitch to operate steam-driven vessels on the waters bordering their states. Fitch later transferred the license to operate in New York waters to Livingston, a former business partner who was also presiding judge of the New York court of chancery when the monopoly was granted. Since obtaining the franchise, Livingston had also received permission to double ferry tolls once steam ferries were put in operation.
When Livingston joined up with Fulton, team-boat ferry operators were told they should be prepared to go out of business. The New York Legislature even agreed to extend Livingston's monopoly an additional five years for every steamboat that he and Fulton put in service. However, before they were able to launch their first steam ferry, another entrepreneur beat them to it.
John Stevens, a former business associate of both Fitch and Livingston, had launched his first steam ferry in 1809. He wanted to run between Hoboken, New Jersey, and New York, but because of Livingston's monopoly, he decided to operate between Philadelphia and Trenton, New Jersey, across the Delaware River. In 1810, Stevens obtained a ferry license from New York City, in conflict with the state license. Stevens tried to reach an amicable agreement with Fulton and Livingston, but when negotiations failed, Stevens went ahead and launched the Juliana, the first steam ferry in New York waters, in 1811. The Juliana, however, challenged the Fulton-Livingston monopoly for only one season. Soon after the ferry was launched, the New York Legislature enacted a law that allowed the seizure of any steamboat not authorized under the state monopoly. The next summer, the Juliana was literally chased out of New York waters. Stevens returned to using team boats on his Hoboken to New York run.
Fulton and Livingston launched their first steam ferry, the Nassau, in 1814. It ran between Manhattan and Brooklyn. The Long Island Star reported of the Nassau, "The captain, lordly as old Neptune, drives his splendid car regardless of wind or tide, and is able to tell with certainty the hour of his return."
Gibbons v. Ogden. The New York seizure law, and a similar law passed by New Jersey in retaliation, seriously retarded development of the ferry industry and perpetuated the use of team boats. The laws also led to the first case ever decided by the U.S. Supreme Court under Article I, Section Eight of the U.S. Constitution, known as the commerce clause.
In 1824, the Court agreed to hear the now-famous case of Thomas Gibbons v. Aaron Ogden. The ferry, heavily loaded with 27 boxcars, sank in Lake Michigan, about seven miles from Milwaukee, during a fierce storm in 1929. Fifty-nine crew and passengers died.
Between 1920 and the early 1960s, ferries on Lake Michigan were also an important conveyance for passengers heading to vacation resorts in Michigan and Wisconsin. However, interstate highways built in the 1960s cut into this passenger service. When the railroads were deregulated in the late 1970s, many of the ferry routes were abandoned. The last railroad to operate ferry service on the Great Lakes was the Chesapeake and Ohio, then known as the Chessie System. In 1983, the railroad's ferry service between Ludington, Michigan and Kewaunee, Wisconsin was purchased by the private Michigan-Wisconsin Transportation Company.
The Michigan-Wisconsin Transportation Company went out of business in 1990, temporarily ending more than 140 years of continuous ferry service on the Great Lakes. In 1991, the Badger, the last Great Lakes car ferry, was purchased by a former chief engineer for the Pere Marquette Railway. Lake Michigan Carferry Services, Inc. began operation in 1992, between Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and Ludington. The four-hour trip was at least six hours faster than driving by car around the southern end of the Lake and through Chicago.
Puget Sound Navigation Company. Small steamboats, known as the Mosquito Fleet, were operating on Puget Sound, in what is now the state of Washington, as early as 1836. The first ferryboat was the City of Seattle, launched on New Year's Eve in 1888. It operated between Seattle and West Seattle for more than 25 years. By the early 1900s, there were at least 70 ferryboats crisscrossing Puget Sound on 70 different routes.
Puget Sound Navigation Company, a subsidiary of the Alaskan Steam Ship Company, began operating ferryboats in 1898. Also known as the Black Ball Line because of its flag, Puget Sound Navigation became the largest licensed ferry operator in the United States in the 1930s with a fleet of more than 30 boats, many of them purchased from San Francisco ferry operators after the Golden Gate Bridge opened in 1937. Puget Sound Navigation controlled most major ferry routes on Puget Sound as a state-regulated monopoly from 1935 until 1951 when it became part of the Washington State Ferry System. It was also responsible for all passenger vessels operating on Puget Sound being called ferryboats. In the early 1900s, only steamboats operating on the shortest routes were commonly called ferries. But in 1909, Canada passed a law limiting the number of passengers that ocean steamships could carry based on gross tonnage. The law was to benefit the Canadian Pacific Railway, which operated steamships between Seattle and Vancouver, in the province of British Columbia. Canadian Pacific's luxury steamships were larger but carried fewer passengers than the vessels operated by Puget Sound Navigation. But Charles Peabody, chairman of Puget Sound Navigation, declared publicly that his vessels were ferryboats, not ocean steamships. Puget Sound Navigation continued carrying boatloads of passengers between Seattle and Vancouver, and the Canadian government never challenged the definition. Passenger boats on Puget Sound have been considered ferryboats ever since.
Puget Sound Navigation is also known for operating the Kalakala. Originally built as a passenger ship in San Francisco and converted to carry automobiles on Puget Sound in 1935, the futuristic-looking Kalakala was the world's first streamlined ship. It could carry 110 cars and 2,000 passengers, and was probably the most photographed ferry in the world. More than six million passengers rode the Kalakala between 1935 and 1941 alone. It was in service on Puget Sound for 32 years.
In the late 1940s, a series of labor strikes and declining ridership forced Puget Sound Navigation to seek a 30-percent rate increase from the State of Washington. The state refused, and Alex Peabody, who had succeeded his father as president, threatened to suspend service, which he did on February 29, 1948. Peabody and Washington State reached an agreement and service was restored a few weeks later. However, Washington state also began to explore the possibility of buying Puget Sound Navigation and operating the ferry service as a public transportation system. Peabody resisted at first, but in 1951 his financial backers forced him to sell, leading to the creation of the Washington State Ferry System.
Ferries began making a comeback in the 1980s as traffic congestion, air pollution, and urban stress became critical problems. In New York, five private ferry operators began service on nine routes between 1986 and 1992. In 1992, New York City offered free use of terminal facilities for ferry operators who agreed to undertake routes specified by the city. Other cities to experience a renaissance in ferry service included Boston, Detroit, and Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Ferry service across San Francisco Bay resumed in 1989 when an earthquake damaged the Bay Bridge. The ferry was so popular that a rival ferry began service in 1990. Both ferry systems planned to add routes, and city transit officials expected 6 to 8 percent of all San Francisco Bay area commuters to be riding ferries by 2000. Many of these new ferries were high-speed, high technology catamarans.
In early 1999, Fast Ferry magazine reported that there were approximately 1,250 fast ferries operating in the world. Traveling 25 to 35 knots, they are capable of carrying at least 50 passengers, or a combination of freight and passengers, making them ideal, alternative transportation in congested areas near waterways. Some of the new market areas include service from Boston to Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, and a $1 billion Water Transit System planned for San Francisco's Bay Area. Smog-sensitive Californians were pleased to learn that the proposed system, covering 440 miles of water routes, would produce only a fraction of the amount of nonmethane hydrocarbons as would vehicular traffic moving the same number of persons.
The Great Lakes ferry system had 20 ferry services going into the 1998 season, serving both upper and lower Michigan. For fiscal year 1997, Great Lakes ferries carried 722,420 passengers, 448,221 vehicles, and completed 64,860 ferry crossings.
One of the most successful ferry shuttle services in the country was operated by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). Ridership doubled between 1997 and 1999. Its biggest passenger commuter ferry service carried 380,000 passengers a year in the Boston Harbor area. Another service from Lovejoy Wharf to the World Trade Center, with a stop at the new Federal Courthouse, was carrying 2,240 one-way passengers per month by mid-1999.
The National Ferry Database reported that there were 224 ferry operators operating 677 ferry vessels in the United States as of 2000. They provided 487 nonstop ferry route segments, comprising 352 ferry routes with service at 578 ferry terminal locations.
Security in most sectors of the travel and recreation industry tightened as a result of the attacks of September 11, 2001, and ferries proved no different. The Coast Guard announced in late 2002 that it planned to increase safety measures on high-capacity passenger ferries. Passengers would be screened and vehicles inspected periodically based on threat level. Under normal conditions, up to 5 percent of passengers would be searched, whereas during extreme conditions all passengers and vehicles could be searched. Costs for the new security measured was estimated at $20 million.
Another result of the attacks of the September 11 attacks, New York City lost its Port Authority Trans-Hudson train service. To offset this loss, U.S. Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta provided $55 million to Metropolitan New York City for ferry-related projects in 2003. The funding would expand interstate ferry services. The same year, Perth Amboy, New Jersey began ferry service to New York Harbor. The privately-owned ferry would operate out of a location near the New Jersey Transit commuter rail service. The New Jersey Transit had agreed to spend $30 million in federal and state funds to build a three-story ferry terminal in Weehawken leased to waterfront entrepreneur Arthur Imperatore. Imperatore owns NY Waterway ferries, which transport some 16,000 people across the Hudson River from docks located in Jersey City, Weehawken, and Hoboken. The new terminal would double the current 5,500 passengers out of Weehawken each day and represents the largest investment in ferries by the state.
Other new services included the Fred Olsen Express, which launched daily ferry service between the Port of Miami and Freeport, Grand Bahama in 2001. The 100-mile, three-hour route can carry 650 passengers. Fred Olsen Express is owned by two Norwegian corporations of shipping mogul Fred Olsen. The ferry would carry tourists as well as cargo. Round-trip fares run approximately $115, compared to about $182 for the lowest air fare available. Some in the industry are skeptical, noting that several others who have attempted this route in the past have not been successful. However, fast ferries have become more popular in recent years as an alternative to flying and crowded highways.
Washington State Ferries. As of 2002, the state of Washington operated 29 ferries and oversaw 1,600 employees with a $330 million operating budget, making it the largest ferry operator in the United States. In 1992, more than 23 million passengers rode Washington State ferries, more than the number of passengers who rode Amtrak trains or used the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. In 1992, Washington State ferries also carried nearly 10 million cars and other vehicles on routes crossing Puget Sound. The year 1992 marked the tenth straight annual increase in passengers and vehicles for the ferry system.
The largest of the Washington State ferries were the Spokane and the Walla Walla, jumbo ferries that could each carry more than 2,000 passengers and 200 automobiles. When they were built in 1972, the Spokane and the Walla Walla were the largest ferryboats in the world. The smallest of the Washington State fleet was the 86-foot Tyee, a passenger-only ferry that could carry 200. The longest of the ferry system's routes is the 40-mile international trip between Anacortes, Washington, and Sidney on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The route winds its way through the San Juan Islands and takes approximately three hours. The shortest route is less than two miles between Tacoma and Vashon Island. Fares ranged from $5.50 for a driver and automobile on most routes to $26 on the Anacortes-to-Sidney route.
Ferry operators in Washington advertised the scenic beauty of the Puget Sound as early as 1890, and nearly 60 percent of the passengers in 1992 were recreational riders, making the ferry system one of the state's biggest tourist attractions. The Washington State Ferry System officially began operation in 1951, when the state purchased the Puget Sound Navigation Company, which had operated as a regulated monopoly since 1935. In addition to the state system, there were 13 other ferries in Washington operated by county or private enterprises.
The Washington ferry system ran into trouble in the early 2000s, and set about aggressively cutting costs to stabilize the agency's budget in attempts to produce a surplus by 2009. The agency proposed fare increases, cuts in spending, and other measures, including situating shops and restaurants in downtown Seattle's Colman Dock. A fare hike of 10 percent for 2003 was proposed, on top of the 12.5 percent increase in 2002.
Alaska Marine Highway. The Alaska Marine Highway was created in 1960, a year after Alaska became the forty-ninth state. In 1992, the system operated eight ferryliners that served three different regions of Alaska. More than 415,000 passengers rode the ferries, which also transported more than 110,000 automobiles. The state Department of Transportation and Public Facilities operates the Alaska Marine Highway.
The Alaska Marine Highway was designed to serve the communities of southeast Alaska, most of which could not be reached by highways. The ferries travel the Inside Passage, a natural seaway protected from the open ocean by the Alexander Archipelago. The first ferries ran between Haines and Juneau. Service was extended north to Skagway and south to Prince Rupert in 1961, and further south to Seattle in 1967. In 1989, Bellingham, Washington, replaced Seattle as the southern terminus of the line.
The trip between Bellingham and Skagway takes three-and-a-half days and covers more than 1,100 miles. Most of the Alaska ferryliners provide staterooms, showers, and food service. Passengers are also allowed to spread sleeping bags on the floor of the passenger lounges at night. Many passengers pitched tents on the open rear deck of the ferryliner.
In 1964, the Alaska Marine Highway created a second ferry system to serve communities in south-central and southwest Alaska, eventually extending from Whittier on Prince William Sound as far west as Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands. All of the routes combined served 32 ports in Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington state, and covered more than 3,500 miles.
In addition to providing transportation for residents of Alaska, the state ferry system also carried thousands of tourists annually. In 1992, the state Department of Transportation estimated that 1 of every 12 tourists reached Alaska via the Alaska Marine Highway. Tourists riding the ferryliners spent an estimated $26 million annually.
In 1991, the Alaska Marine Highway began a six-year program to refurbish its ferryliners, which ranged in age from the Taku, built in 1963, to the Aurora, built in 1977. The program also included replacing the Malaspina, also built in 1963, with a new ferryliner launched in 1996. Like the Malaspina, the new ferryliner carries 500 passengers and took over the Bellingham to Skagway route. The system's largest ferryliner was the 418-foot Columbia, built in 1974, which can carry 625 passengers and 158 automobiles.
Between 1992 and 2001, the Alaska Marine Highway System carried 3.7 million passengers and a million vehicles, or an average of 370,000 passengers and 100,000 vehicles per year. The system's first fast vehicle ferry was expected to begin service in 2004.
New York City Area Ferries. Among the best-known ferries in the United States are the blue and orange Staten Island Ferries. The ferries provide the only direct link between the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island. More than 370,000 people lived on Staten Island in the early 1990s. The ferries also provide tourists with a waterborne view of the Statue of Liberty in New York Bay. In recent years, the ferries averaged more than 20 million passengers annually, or 70,000 per day.
The first official ferry service between Manhattan and Staten Island was chartered in 1712. Cornelius Vanderbilt operated one of three Staten Island ferry companies during the early 1800s. In 1853, Vanderbilt merged his service with the rival services. The Staten Island Railroad operated the ferry service from the late 1850s until 1905, when New York City purchased the route, making the Staten Island Ferries the first publicly owned mass-transit system in the United States. The cost of riding the Staten Island ferry remained five cents from 1897 until 1975.
As highways in the New York City area became increasingly more congested with commuters bound to and from work, a number of other ferry services were established. These new ferry routes link points wholly within the city, as well as points in New Jersey, Long Island, and Connecticut with the city. Unlike the publicly operated Staten Island Ferries, these newcomers to ferry service in the city are mostly privately run.
North Carolina Ferry Division. The North Carolina Department of Transportation operated the second largest ferry operation with 21 vessels on seven routes in 2002. The ferries carried about 900,000 cars a year and more than 2.5 million passengers. North Carolina, with its many inlets and offshore islands, entered the ferry business in 1934 when it began subsidizing a private ferry at Oregon Inlet. The state took over the Oregon Inlet ferry in 1950. The first state-owned ferry service, however, was on Croatan Sound. The state purchased the ferry operation in 1947 from the widow of a private operator.
Between 1947 and the early 1960s, the state inaugurated or acquired several more ferry routes using surplus World War II-type Landing Craft Tank (LCT) and Landing Craft Utility (LCU) vessels purchased from the U.S. government. Many of those ferry crossings were later eliminated by bridge construction. The first modern doubled-ended ferries were put in service in 1957. All of North Carolina's ferries were operated toll free until 1961, when the state assumed operation of the Pamlico Sound ferry between Atlantic and Ocracoke Island. In 1962, the state began ferry service between Knotts Island and Currituck to cut in half a 90-minute school bus ride for children living on the island.
The North Carolina Department of Transportation Ferry Division was created in 1977, combining an early ferry operations department and a maintenance facility at Manns Harbor. In 1993, the newest ferry route was another Pamlico Sound crossing between Ocracoke and Swan Quarter on the mainland. It was also the longest route at 26 miles. The newest ferry in operation was the Governor Russell, completed in 1992, which could carry 34 vehicles and 225 passengers. The oldest ferry in operation was the Hattaras, an LCU built in 1953.
Of the private ferry service operations around the country, one of largest was run by Catalina Channel Express, Inc., based in San Pedro, California. Catalina Channel Express, which marked 20 years of service in 2001, operates a fleet of eight passenger-auto ferries from the greater Los Angeles area to Catalina Island and carries more than 1 million passengers annually. The Cross Sound Ferry Services, Inc. runs boats across Long Island Sound between Connecticut and the north shore of New York's Long Island. It is based in New London, Connecticut. Based in Alameda, California, Harbor Bay Maritime is another leading private ferry operation in the United States. It operates ferry routes in the San Francisco Bay Area. Other large private ferries included the Boston-based Bay State Cruise Co., Inc., and Harbor Boating, Inc., in Baltimore.
"Catalina Express Will Mark 20 Years of Service in July 2001." Catalina Express Web Site, May 2003. Available from http://www.catalinaexpress.com .
"Daily Ferry Service Begins Between Miami Port, Grand Bahama." Miami Herald, 27 April 2001.
Garber, Andrew. "Washington State Ferry System Aims for Budget Surplus." Seattle Times, 19 September 2002.
"Increased Safety on Ferries Being Considered." Mass Transit, December 2002.
Malinconico, Joe. "$30 Million Ferry Terminal Is in the Works for Weehawken, N.J." Newark Star-Ledger, 15 March 2001.
"Mineta Funds New York Ferry Projects." Mass Transit, April 2003.
"New Jersey Adds Ferry Service." Mass Transit, February 2003.
North Carolina Department of Transportation. History of the North Carolina Ferry Division. Raleigh, N.C., 2003.
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. National Ferry Database. 2003. Available from http://www.transtats.bts.gov .