Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC)

The Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) was a temporary federal agency established in 1989 to oversee the disposal of assets from failed savings and loan (S&L) institutions. It was created by Congress in the wake of the 1980s S&L crisis, in which hundreds of depository institutions slipped into insolvency due to unsound banking practices.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

In 1976 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted as an amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act. RCRA regulates both household and hazardous solid wastes, with regulations covering hazardous wastes that are particularly detailed and are described as being "cradle to grave." ("Cradle to grave" refers to regulation from the point of generation of the waste through and including its ultimate point of "disposal" or storage.) The act was amended by Congress in 1978, 1980, 1984, 1986, 1988, and 1996, with the 1984 amendments making the most substantial additions to the program.

Restraint of Trade

' Restraint of trade" is a phrase from the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, a historic piece of legislation designed to halt the excessive monopolistic and anticompetitive activities of the then burgeoning industrial combinations and trusts. Specifically it was meant to curtail two types of anticompetitive behavior: the growth of giant monopolies through mergers and various price-fixing schemes and agreements.

Restrictive Covenants

Creditors use protective covenants in bond indentures to protect their interests by restricting certain activities of the issuer that could endanger the creditor's position. Similarly, banks employ loan covenants to ensure that the borrower uses the funds for the stated purpose.


A resume is a document submitted to a potential employer by a job applicant outlining and summarizing that person's qualifications for employment. Generally speaking, resumes are written with a particular job objective in mind and include data on the applicant's education, previous work experience, and, to a lesser extent, personal information.

Retail Trade

Retailing is the sector of the economy that offers goods and services for sale directly to the ultimate consumers, usually private individuals. It is related to wholesale trade, which is the purchase of goods or services in bulk by businesses or persons who may add something to those goods or services, or use them in production.

Retirement Planning

Retirement planning has become among the most important of a person's financial considerations, for several reasons. First, life expectancy has drastically increased.

Right of Privacy

At no time in American history has the "right of privacy" generated such heated controversy and been the focus of so much attention as at present. The Watergate scandal in the 1970s focused public attention for the first time on the damaging effects of sophisticated electronic technology on privacy.

Rights (Securities)

In order to raise money, publicly held companies sometimes offer additional securities (shares traded in the stock market) to their common stockholders, which allows shareholders to preserve their interest in a company. Companies seeking to raise money this way will issue the new securities at a rate lower than the market value and will enable stockholders to purchase them in proportion to the amount they own, i.e., to purchase a "pro rata" share.

Risk and Return

The term "risk and return" refers to the potential financial loss or gain experienced through investments in securities. An investor who has registered a profit is said to have seen a "return" on his or her investment.

Risk Management

Risk management is the identification, appraisal, and prevention or minimization of exposures to accidental loss for an organization or individual. Since risk offers not only the opportunity for growth but also for harm, risk managers must predict and prevent or control any potential harm.


The Robotic Industries Association, the leading trade group for the robotics industry, defines a robot as follows: it is a "reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks." This definition has become generally accepted in the United States and other Western countries. The most common form of industrial robot is made up of a single automated arm that resembles a construction crane.

S Corporations

Known formally as subchapter S corporations, a name derived from the section of the U.S. tax code dealing with them, S corporations are small business corporations specially designated by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

Sales Contracts

A sales contract is an agreement between a buyer and seller covering the sale and delivery of goods, securities, and personal property other than goods or securities. In the United States domestic sales contracts are governed by the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC).

Sales Force

A company's sales force consists of its staff of salespeople. The role of the sales force depends to a large extent on whether a company is selling directly to consumers or to other businesses.

Sales Forecasting

Sales forecasts are common and essential tools used for business planning, marketing, and general management decision making. A sales forecast is a projection of the expected customer demand for products or services at a specific company, for a specific time horizon, and with certain underlying assumptions.

Sales Letters

A standard direct-mail package usually includes an outer envelope, a reply envelope, a brochure, and a response device in addition to the sales letter. The direct-mail letter is a sales letter and provides the opportunity to directly address the interests and concerns of the recipient.

Sales Management

Sales management refers to the administration of the personal selling component of an organization's marketing program. It includes the planning, implementation, and control of sales programs, as well as recruiting, training, motivating, and evaluating members of the sales force.

Sales Promotion

Sales promotion is an important component of a company's marketing communication strategy along with advertising, public relations, and personal selling. At its core, sales promotion is a marketing activity that adds to the basic value proposition behind a product (i.e., getting more for less) for a limited time in order to stimulate consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness, or the effort of the sales force.

Sales Tax

A sales tax is a tax that is levied on the sales of goods and, in some cases, services. Sales taxes apply to transactions and are based on expenditures.

Salvage Value

All assets have a salvage value, which is the estimated value each asset will have after it is no longer going to be used in the operation of a business. Also known as the residual value or scrap value, the salvage value may be zero or a positive amount.


Sanctions involve the deliberate withdrawal, or threat of withdrawal, of customary trade or financial assistance by one or more countries against another country. Also known as embargoes, economic sanctions refer to measures taken by one or more nations against another country to halt trade with the target country.

Savings and Loan Associations

The first savings and loan association was organized in 1831 as the Oxford Provident Building Association of Philadelphia. Like the building societies of England and the credit cooperatives of Europe, it was a membership organization that took savings deposits from its members and in turn made home loans to them.

Scanning Systems

Digital scanning refers to optical and electronic processes that capture and convert printed materials to digital format. Scanning is one component of a larger document imaging system that includes image-capture, storage, display, and retrieval capabilities.

Securities Act of 1933

The Securities Act of 1933, sometimes referred to as the truth-in securities act, is primarily concerned with the initial issuance of securities from enterprises to the investing public in the United States. The intention of the 1933 act is to ensure that all relevant information about the security be disclosed to potential investors.

Securities and Investments

"Investments" refers to the process of applying resources so as to increase wealth. Direct investment is the actual acquisition and management of assets by the individual.

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

The Securities Exchange Act (SEA) of 1934 was enacted on June 6, 1934, and was meant to oversee and regulate trading on the various U.S. securities markets.

Securities and Exchange Commission, U.S.

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is responsible for administering federal securities laws written to provide protection for investors.