Object-Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) focuses on grouping, simplification, streamlining, and standardization. For example, it would seem unreasonable if every time someone traveled between two cities that they would experiment and do it by trial and error.

Occupational Information Network

O*NET, or the Occupational Information Network, is an electronic replacement for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). Like the DOT, which was last published in 1991, O*NET provides a comprehensive database of worker attributes and job characteristics.

Open and Closed Systems

A system is commonly defined as a group of interacting units or elements that have a common purpose. The units or elements of a system can be cogs, wires, people, computers, and so on.

Operant Conditioning

Simply put, operant conditioning refers to a systematic program of rewards and punishments to influence behavior or bring about desired behavior. Operant conditioning relies on two basic assumptions about human experience and psychology: (1) a particular act results in an experience that is a consequence of that act and (2) the perceived quality of an act's consequence affects future behavior.

Operating Systems

A computer's operating system is one of the most important "parts" of the computer. Almost every type of computer, including cellular telephones, needs an operating system in order to operate properly.

Operations Management

One may generally consider that there are three distinct areas inherent in any business: marketing, finance, and operations; all other business disciplines fit somewhere under one or more of these areas. For example, finance could include investing, real estate, insurance or banking.

Operations Scheduling

Scheduling pertains to establishing both the timing and use of resources within an organization. Under the operations function (both manufacturing and services), scheduling relates to use of equipment and facilities, the scheduling of human activities, and receipt of materials.

Operations Strategy

After collectively considering the products and services demanded by customers, strengths and weaknesses of competitors, the environment, and the firm's own strengths, weaknesses, cultures, and resources, proficient firms can formulate their vision as expressed through the mission statement. This statement expresses the organization's values and aspirations; basically its reason or purpose for existence.

Opportunity Cost

An opportunity cost is defined as the value of a forgone activity or alternative when another item or activity is chosen. Opportunity cost comes into play in any decision that involves a tradeoff between two or more options.

Order-Winning and Order-Qualifying Criteria

The terms "order winners" and "order qualifiers" were coined by Terry Hill, professor at the London Business School, and refer to the process of how internal operational capabilities are converted to criteria that may lead to competitive advantage and market success. In his writings, Hill emphasized the interactions and cooperation between operations and marketing.

Organic Organizations

The term "organic" suggests that, like living things, organizations change their structures, roles, and processes to respond and adapt to their environments. Burns and Stalker noted in The Management of Innovation that organic structures are appropriate in unstable, turbulent, unpredictable environments and for non-routine tasks and technologies.

Organization Theory

Organization theory is a broad field with roots in sociology. Anthropologists, philosophists, and political scientists have contributed greatly to the field.

Organizational Analysis and Planning

Organizational analysis and planning focuses on cultivating and maintaining an efficient workforce through the design and structure of an organization, as well as the relationships and behavior of individuals within organizations. Specifically, organizational analysis is concerned with developing models and theories that accurately capture the functioning and development of organizations and that account for the ways in which organizations respond to and bring about changes.

Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior is a misnomer. It is not the study of how organizations behave, but rather the study of individual behavior in an organizational setting.

Organizational Chart

An organizational chart is a pictorial representation of a company's structure and reporting relationships. This chart can provide a great deal of information and may help organizational members understand the overall structure of the organization and its strategy.

Organizational Culture

As people work together to accomplish goals, groups develop into organizations. As goals become more specific and longer-term, and work more specialized, organizations become both more formal and institutionalized.

Organizational Development

Organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective change in an organization. Organizational development is known as both a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry.

Organizational Learning

The importance of learning in organizations has been recognized since the early twentieth century. Organizational learning was implicitly applied by Henry Ford in developing the Model T.

Organizational Structure

Organizational structure refers to the way that an organization arranges people and jobs so that its work can be performed and its goals can be met. When a work group is very small and face-to-face communication is frequent, formal structure may be unnecessary, but in a larger organization decisions have to be made about the delegation of various tasks.